Bibliographic data

Winter, Hans: Mittelalter und Neue Zeit bis zum Westfälischen Frieden. Lehrbuch der Deutschen und Bayerischen Geschichte mit Einschluss der wichtigsten Tatsachen der außerdeutschen Geschichte und der Kulturgeschichte für Höhere Lehranstalten, Vol. 1. Munich: Oldenbourg Verlag, 8. Aufl., 1913, 163–164.

The European Rule of Habsburg Family

[p. 163]

§ 54

II. Intervention in Worldly Powers since 1521

under Emperor Charles V (1519-1556).

1. Charles V and his position. The first phase of the new religious movement occurred during the reign of Emperor Maximilian. Unlike Leo X, the art-loving Medici on the papal throne, Emperor Maximilian is said to have observed with considerable interest how the monks used to bicker between each other. After his death in 1519, the selection of a new emperor remained undecided for quite a while, and alternated between between Franz I from France and Charles I from Spain, a grandson of Maximilian. The latter was victorious.

King Charles I, having been named the German Emperor Charles V, owed more to Spain than to Germany on account of his nationality and education. Having acquired a traditional way of thinking, he defended the idea of a Christian universal empire, which could only be conceived of in connection with the undivided papal church.

Charles’ dual sovereignty. On his father’s side, Charles V was the rightful heir to Austria and Burgundy. On his mother’s side [p.164], however, he was the heir to Spain and its Italian and non-European possessions. He was known to say that the sun never set in his empire. The only obstacles to him enforcing a sustainable imperial rule in Germany were the huge expanse and the remoteness of the lands over which he ruled, for which he had to go to battle against the French in the west and the south, and against the Turks in the east. This situation nonetheless made conditions more favourable for church reform.

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