The glossary provides conceptual and factual explanations and a socio-political contextualisation of terms in the respective source texts. Different layers of meaning can thus be made visible at a national, historical, but also a transnational comparative level.


Unlike in Germany, where the term race has been made a taboo due to negative historical coinage, this term is frequently used in African contexts. The concept especially serves to point out that Africans are being disadvantaged and experience racism. The idea that the notion of different races is outdated will find little support in this context because the point is not to balance out alterity and propagate a society with equal rights and chances for all, but to point out unequal chances and inequality.
Imke Rath (editorial team).

New World

The concept of the New World has been coined as a concept of alterity in the context of Spanish colonialism and contrasts old Europe with the newly discovered America. At the time, the label usually had a rather negative connotation as the New World was viewed as rough and backwards.
Imke Rath (editorial team).


Kampung or kampong is the Indonesian and Malayan name for villages and rural settlements. Today Malayan and Indonesian districts and urban domestic areas, respectively, also bear this name. The term may bear the connotation of a homeland. The Indonesian phrase pulang kampung, for example, implies coming home and is used in contexts where someone is returning to their family (usually to their place of birth or the place they grew up in).
Imke Rath (editorial team).

Tanah Air

The Indonesian term Tanah Air, literally translated, means land water. It refers to the Indonesian islands as a whole. Most of the time it is used in the sense of homeland or motherland.
Imke Rath (editorial team).


In Indonesia, as in several other countries, it has traditionally not been the heart but the liver that is regarded as the repository of feelings. The first metaphor was spread especially in Christian contexts. Today they partly overlap. As a means to express their heartache (which is accordingly called liver ache), for example, a person would press their hands against their chest rather than their stomach. In Early Modern Christian texts, it can be noted that the metaphorical term for the Christian heart is usually translated with the Tagalog loob, which means the inner or inner self, and has been referred to as puso, meaning heart, only since the 18th century.
See Rath, Imke: Christliche Wissenssysteme und 'Strategien des Übersetzens' im Missionierungskontext. Die Darstellung der tagalischen Religion im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert, Frankfurt a. M.: Peter Lang, 2017, 383-401.


The Kris or Keris is a curved dagger which is common in Southeast Asia, especially in Indonesia, Malaysia and in the Philippines. In Malayan culture an important spiritual meaning is assigned to it.
See UNESCO, Intangible Cultural Heritage, (23.01.2017); Wikipedia, (17.03.2017).


Pesantren are Islamic boarding schools in Indonesia. It is assumed that they followed the Javanese pondokan, which were Hinduist ashram or Buddhist vihara, where pupils received religious education and were trained in fine arts and meditation. The term is derived from santri for pupil. Pesantren are, accordingly, places of the santri. In Malaysia and Southern Thailand, the Islamic schools are known as pontok, and in India, Pakistan and the Arab speaking world, they are known as madrasa Islamia. The instruction focuses on the teachings of the Koran, the study of the Arabic language, of traditions of the exegesis and of the tradition of the Prophet Mohammed as well as law and logic.
See Lukens-Bull, Ronald: A Peaceful Jihad. Negotiating Identity and Modernity in Muslim Java, New York: Palgrave McMillian, 2005, 48; Wikipedia, (04.04.2017).


The Pancasila are the five principles of the national ideology and constitution of the Indonesian Republic. It has been adopted into the preamble of the constitution. The first principle is the Belief in the One and Only God (Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa), the second one is humanism and internationalism, the third one is national unity, the fourth one is democracy and the fifth one is social justice.
See Wikipedia, (04.04.2017).


In the Spanish speaking parts of Latin America and the Caribbean, descendants of one European parent and one Native parent are often referred to as Mestizo. The term emerged during colonial times and derives from the Roman language. Today Latin America has the largest populations that are referred to as Mestizo, but the exact meaning differs from country to country and depends on the use of language.
See Wikipedia, (20.06.2017).

West Indies

West Indies or West Indian Islands is the name for a group of islands in front of the South American mainland, which different countries belong to. The Caribbean Islands were settled by different countries during colonial times and comprise the Antilles, the Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands.  The term West Indies is misleading and derives from the fact that, at their discovery, Christopher Columbus assumed he was on the western passage to India.
See Wikipedia, (20.06.2017).